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The population has subsequently spread out Based on the accounts of Syrian Orthodox bishop Bar Hebraeus who lived between 1226 and 1286 CE by the time of the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE as ma as six million Jews were already living in the Roman Empire. Загрузка Загрузка Загрузка In Israel the term Ashkenazi is now used in a manner unrelated to its original meaning often applied to all Jews who settled in Europe and sometimes including those whose ethnic background is actually Sephardic Jews of a non-Ashkenazi background including Mizrahi Yemenite Kurdish and others who have no connection with the Iberian Peninsula have similarly come to be lumped together as Sephardic Jews of mixed background are increasingly common partly because of intermarriage between Ashkenazi and non-Ashkenazi and partly because ma do not see such historic markers as relevant to their life experiences. In later times the word Ashkenaz is used to designate southern and western Germa the ritual of which sections differs somewhat from that of eastern Germa and Poland Thus the prayer-book of Isaiah Horowitz and ma others give the piyyutim according to the Minhag of Ashkenaz and Poland. The Halakhic practices of (Orthodox) Ashkenazi Jews may differ from those of Sephardi Jews particularly in matters of custom Differences are noted in the Shulkhan Arukh itself in the gloss of Moses Isserles Well known differences in practice include: The answer to why there was so little assimilation of Jews in central and eastern Europe for so long would seem to lie in part in the probability that the alien surroundings in central and eastern Europe were not conducive though contempt did not prevent some assimilation Furthermore Jews lived almost exclusively in shtetls maintained a strong system of education for males heeded rabbinic leadership and scorned the lifestyle of their neighbors; and all of these tendencies increased with every outbreak of antisemitism.[75] There are ma references to Ashkenazi Jews in the literature of medical and population genetics Indeed much awareness of "Ashkenazi Jews" as an ethnic group or category stems from the large number of genetic studies of disease including ma that are well reported in the media that have been conducted among Jews populations have been studied more thoroughly than most other human populations for a variety of reasons: Then in the 1990s yet another Ashkenazi wave began to arrive from countries of the former Soviet Union and Central Europe The result is a pluralistic community that still has some distinct elements of both Ashkenazi and Sephardic culture But in France it is becoming much more difficult to sort out the two and a distinctly French ness has emerged.[108] A 2006 study by Seldin et al used over five thousand autosomal SNPs to demonstrate European genetic substructure The results showed "a consistent and reproducible distinction between 'northern' and 'southern' European population groups" Most northern central and eastern Europeans (Finns Swedes English Irish Germans and Ukrainians) showed >90% in the "northern" population group while most individual participants with southern European ancestry (Italians Greeks Portuguese Spaniards) showed >85% in the "southern" group Both Ashkenazi Jews as well as Sephardic Jews showed >85% membership in the "southern" group Referring to the Jews clustering with southern Europeans the authors state the results were "consistent with a later Mediterranean origin of these ethnic groups".[14] Chabad-Lubavitch Rabbi Baruch Gorin who serves as chairman of the publishing house and spokesman of the Federation of Communities of the Former Soviet Union said that while easily accessible and authoritative translations of the Torah can be found in a variety of s not much has historically been available in. Time magazine's person of the 20th century Albert Einstein,[128] was an Ashkenazi Jew According to a study performed by Cambridge University 21% of Ivy League students 25% of the Turing Award winners 23% of the wealthiest Americans 38% of the Oscar-winning film directors and 29% of Oslo awardees are Ashkenazi Jews.[129] Загрузка Click here for more videos By the 15th century the Ashkenazi communities in Poland were the largest communities of the Diaspora.[74] This area which eventually fell under the domination of Russia Austria and Prussia (Germa) would remain the main center of Ashkenazi Jewry until the Holocaust.

Efforts to identify the origins of Ashkenazi Jews through DNA analysis began in the 1990s Currently there are three types of genetic origin testing autosomal DNA (atDNA) mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Y-chromosomal DNA (Y-DNA) Autosomal DNA is a mixture from an individual's entire ancestry Y-DNA shows a male's lineage only along his strict paternal line mtDNA shows a person's lineage only along the strict maternal line Genome-wide association studies have also been employed to yield findings relevant to genetic origins. Relations between Ashkenazim and Sephardim have at times been tense and clouded by arrogance snobbery and claims of racial superiority with both sides claiming the inferiority of the other based upon such features as physical traits and culture.[112][113][114][115][116] A 2014 study by Fernández et al has found that Ashkenazi Jews display a frequency of haplogroup K in their maternal DNA that suggests an ancient Near Eastern origin similar to the results of Behar He stated that this observation clearly contradicts the results of the study led by Richards that suggested a European source for 3 exclusively Ashkenazi K lineages.[148] Загрузка Загрузка Смотрите видео на YouTube без рекламы Обработка The term Ashkenazi also refers to the nusach Ashkenaz (Hebrew "liturgical tradition" or rite) used by Ashkenazi Jews in their Siddur (prayer book) A nusach is defined by a liturgical tradition's choice of prayers the order of prayers the text of prayers and melodies used in the singing of prayers Two other major forms of nusach among Ashkenazic Jews are Nusach Sefard (not to be confused with the Sephardic ritual) which is the general Polish Hasidic nusach and Nusach Ari as used by Lubavitch Hasidim. Material relating to the history of German Jews has been preserved in the communal accounts of certain communities on the Rhine a Memorbuch and a Liebesbrief documents that are now part of the Sassoon Collection.[81] Heinrich Graetz has also added to the history of German Jewry in modern times in the abstract of his seminal work History of the Jews which he entitled "Volksthümliche Geschichte. Responding to skyrocketing demand for a new translation of the Five Books of Moses Moscow’s Lechaim Publishing House has released a new one-volume edition of the Torah Initiated by Chief Rabbi Berel Lazar to fill a gap in the availability of modern translations of classic texts the publishing effort has already seen several printing runs of thousands of copies Individual copies of each of the Torah’s five books released just six months ago have been sold out for. Обработка In 1740 a family from Lithuania became the first Ashkenazi Jews to settle in the Quarter of Jerusalem.[83] A 2013 trans-genome study carried out by 30 geneticists from 13 universities and academies from 9 countries assembling the largest data set available to date for assessment of Ashkenazi genetic origins found no evidence of Khazar origin among Ashkenazi Jews "Thus analysis of Ashkenazi Jews together with a large sample from the region of the Khazar Khaganate corroborates the earlier results that Ashkenazi Jews derive their ancestry primarily from populations of the Middle East and Europe that they possess considerable shared ancestry with other populations and that there is no indication of a significant genetic contribution either from within or from north of the Caucasus region" the authors concluded.[164] The genome-wide genetic study carried out in 2010 by Behar et al examined the genetic relationships among all major groups including Ashkenazim as well as the genetic relationship between these groups and non- ethnic populations The study found that contemporary Jews (excluding Indian and Ethiopian Jews) have a close genetic relationship with people from the Levant The authors explained that "the most parsimonious explanation for these observations is a common genetic origin which is consistent with an historical formulation of the people as descending from ancient Hebrew and Israelite residents of the Levant".[158] Ashkenazi Jews have played a prominent role in the economy media and politics[96] of Israel since its founding During the first decades of Israel as a state strong cultural conflict occurred between Sephardic and Ashkenazi Jews (mainly east European Ashkenazim) The roots of this conflict which still exists to a much smaller extent in present-day Israeli society are chiefly attributed to the concept of the "melting pot".[97] That is to say all immigrants who arrived in Israel were strongly encouraged to "melt down" their own particular exilic identities within the general social "pot" in order to become Israeli.[98] The Ashkenazi Chief Rabbis in the Yishuv and Israel include: In the Midrash compilation Genesis Rabbah Rabbi Berechiah mentions Ashkenaz Riphath and Togarmah as German tribes or as German lands It may correspond to a Greek word that may have existed in the Greek dialect of the Jews in Syria Palaestina or the text is corrupted from "Germanica." This view of Berechiah is based on the Talmud (Yoma 10a; Jerusalem Talmud Megillah 71b) where Gomer the father of Ashkenaz is translated by Germamia which evidently stands for Germa and which was suggested by the similarity of. Загрузка In genetic epidemiology a genome-wide association study (GWA study or GWAS) is an examination of all or most of the genes (the genome) of different individuals of a particular species to see how much the genes vary from individual to individual These techniques were originally designed for epidemiological uses to identify genetic associations with observable traits.[149] The term "Ashkenazi" refers to settlers who established communities along the Rhine River in Western Germa and in Northern France dating back to the Middle Ages.[24] Once there they adapted traditions from Babylon The Land of Israel and the Western Mediterranean to their new environment.[25] The Ashkenazi religious rite developed in cities such as Mainz Worms and Troyes The eminent French Rishon Rabbi Shlomo Itzhaki (Rashi) would have a significant impact on the religion.

Where to purchase You can contact the US branch of the publisher at:580 Fifth Ave Suite 800New York 10036 USATelephone: 212-262-3688Online at: Luck! Reply In the first half of the 11th century Hai Gaon refers to questions that had been addressed to him from Ashkenaz by which he undoubtedly means Germa Rashi in the latter half of the 11th century refers to both the of Ashkenaz[76] and the country of Ashkenaz.[77] During the 12th century the word appears quite frequently In the Mahzor Vitry the kingdom of Ashkenaz is referred to chiefly in regard to the ritual of the synagogue there but occasionally also with regard to certain other observances.[78] A 2007 study by Bauchet et al found that Ashkenazi Jews were most closely clustered with Arabic North African populations when compared to Global population and in the European structure analysis they share similarities only with Greeks and Southern Italians reflecting their east Mediterranean origins.[150][151] Genetic counseling and genetic testing are often undertaken by couples where both partners are of Ashkenazi ancestry Some organizations most notably Dor Yeshorim organize screening programs to prevent homozygosity for the genes that cause related diseases.[167][168] In the literature of the 13th century references to the land and the of Ashkenaz often occur Examples include Solomon ben Aderet's Responsa (vol i No 395); the Responsa of Asher ben Jehiel (pp. 4 6); his Halakot (Berakot i 12 ed Wilna p. 10); the work of his son Jacob ben Asher Tur Orach Chayim (chapter 59); the Responsa of Isaac ben Sheshet (numbers. Several famous people have Ashkenazi as a surname such as Vladimir Ashkenazy However most people with this surname hail from within Sephardic communities particularly from the Syrian community The Sephardic carriers of the surname would have some Ashkenazi ancestors since the surname was adopted by families who were initially of Ashkenazic origins who moved to Sephardi countries and joined those communities Ashkenazi would be formally adopted as the family surname having started off as a nickname imposed by their adopted communities Some have shortened the name. The majority of genetic findings to date concerning Ashkenazi Jews conclude that the male line was founded by ancestors from the Middle East.[133][134][135] Загрузка Обработка Загрузка плейлистов Обработка Загрузка Обработка Загрузка Загрузка The theory has sometimes been used by authors such as Arthur Koestler as part of an argument against traditional forms of antisemitism (for example the claim that "the Jews killed Christ") just as similar arguments have been advanced on behalf of the Crimean Karaites Today however the theory is more often associated with antisemitism[161] and anti-Zionism.[162][163] Загрузка Загрузка Загрузка Like most DNA studies of human migration patterns the earliest studies on Ashkenazi Jews focused on the Y-DNA and mtDNA segments of the human genome Both segments are unaffected by recombination (except for the ends of the Y chromosome – the pseudoautosomal regions known as PAR1 and PAR2) thus allowing tracing of direct maternal and paternal lineages. In the 11th century both Rabbinic Judaism and the culture of the Babylonian Talmud that underlies it became established in southern Italy and then spread north to Ashkenaz.[71] Загрузка The result is a form of ascertainment bias This has sometimes created an impression that Jews are more susceptible to genetic disease than other populations.[165] Healthcare professionals are often taught to consider those of Ashkenazi descent to be at increased risk for colon cancer.[166] In the late 19th century it was proposed that the core of today's Ashkenazi Jewry are genetically descended from a hypothetical Khazarian diaspora who had migrated westward from modern Russia and Ukraine into modern France and Germa (as opposed to the currently held theory that Jews migrated from France and Germa into Eastern Europe) The hypothesis is not corroborated by historical sources[159] and is unsubstantiated by genetics but it is still occasionally supported by scholars who have had some success in keeping the theory in the academic consciousness.[160] Загрузка In Jeremiah 51:27 Ashkenaz figures as one of three kingdoms in the far north the others being Minni and Ararat perhaps corresponding to Urartu called on by God to resist Babylon.[41][42]

Hi I would like to buy 5 books of Torah versions how much would it cost? Reply Lewis Brinin Petersburg Florida Decem Thank G-d! Where do i buy one for my synagogue? Reply In a religious sense an Ashkenazi Jew is a Jew whose family tradition and ritual follows Ashkenazi practice Until the Ashkenazi community first began to develop in the Early Middle Ages the centers of religious authority were in the Islamic world at Baghdad and in Islamic Spain Ashkenaz (Germa) was so distant geographically that it developed a minhag of its own Ashkenazi Hebrew came to be pronounced in ways distinct from other forms of Hebrew.[100]